Both academics and academic institutions are highly adaptable to external circumstances and change has always been the defining feature of national higher education systems. Countries with predominantly insurance-based systems e. This article reports on a study of the association between social transfer policies and poverty. The result has been a rich and complex panorama of political, legislative and administrative initiatives, which we considered worth discussing in order to better understand their reach and limits. This creates the necessity for a new design of institutional forms and organising structures able to modify incentives both to players involved in the process of production and supply of social services more competition and to users of those services more choice and autonomy. The number of hospital days directly influences public spending for alcohol and drug treatment.
Research byl proveden for the period 2007-2016 using the method of cluster analysis and boxplot. When these discourses - which provide social legitimation combined with public funding - weaken, institutions weaken together with them. Recensione: The Welfare State in the European Union, covers much ground, both empirical and discursive, and will certainly provide a useful companion to those wanting to understand the workings of welfare states today and in the future. The prevalence of problematic illegal or legal drug use in a country did not correlate significantly with the number of hospital days. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Economics Book Marketing. In such cases, socially provided pensions are the most important source of income maintenance and represent an important safety net Atkinson et al.
The Swedish version of the public-private partnership in the statutory pension system appears as the best solution for specific sorts of systems, such as the individual accounts. You can help correct errors and omissions. The authors that it is crucial that all the components of the welfare state be made as efficient as possible, and that if a choice has to be made between alleviating poverty and protecting individuals against lifetime risks, priority should be given to the first objective. It is facing a variety of challenges that include demographic aging, the changing role of families, increased opportunism, economic integration and declining job security. We perform several tests with the most recent data.
These variations across countries have to be taken into account in interpreting and using welfare theory and policy. General contact details of provider:. The authors that it is crucial that all the components of the welfare state be made as efficient as possible, and that if a choice has to be made between alleviating poverty and protecting individuals against lifetime risks, priority should be given to the first objective. One of the main purposes of welfare states is to address social exclusion and marginalisation e. However, this trend seems to have stagnated in recent years. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the effects of minimum pension schemes on income and poverty rates in old age, acknowledging that a cross-country comparison is affected by the heterogeneity of the policy measures that are usually considered as minimum pensions.
I am indebted to Claude d'Aspremont, Helmuth Cremer, François Maniquet, Jean Hindriks, and Pierre Pestieau, for their careful reading and for their many useful suggestions. The assumption of this chapter is that public institutions cannot thrive without powerful supportive discourses concerning their social roles. More targeted benefits, however, do not significantly reduce income inequality. The paper focuses on the increasing cross-sectoral competition for public resources between various types of public sector institutions in Europe and its implications for future public funding for both higher education and academic research. The authors that it is crucial that all the components of the welfare state be made as efficient as possible, and that if a choice has to be made between alleviating poverty and protecting individuals against lifetime risks, priority should be given to the first objective. However, comparative studies frequently use indicators which may not be representative as measures of the welfare state. In this article we have done several convergence tests with the most recent data, using a variety of indicators of social protection: social expenditures, both at the macro and at the programme level, replacement rates of unemployment and social assistance benefits and poverty indicators.
The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. Copyright c 2010 The Author s. These results contrast with those from recent research using data sets that comprise a more diverse groups of countries in terms of geography and income levels. Biografía del autor: Since receiving his B. Perform a for a similarly titled item that would be available.
In being transparent, guaranteeing prudent investments and in offering the minimum possible cost for employees, it embodies a wide range of advantages. Especially in times of weak economic activity, this led to a significant burden on public budgets. General contact details of provider:. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
After correcting for the impact of taxes and for private social arrangements, the linkage between social effort and poverty levels becomes even weaker. The major implication is the fierce competition for public resources, studied in this chapter from a cross—sectoral perspective, in which the future levels of public funding for higher education in tax—based European systems are highly dependent on social attitudes towards what higher education brings to society and the economy, relative to what other claimants to the public purse can bring to them. The commonwealth cannot be equated with the state nor can the common good of society be sustained by government action alone. But today the welfare state is at a crossroad. Our results are less clear cut than earlier findings. Défense et illustration, with M.