The National Intelligence Estimate is a longer, more in-depth study of a topic—say, the future leadership succession in China. Through their use of satellites and reconnaissance aircraft, both ideological encampments could confidently spy on the missilery and armies of their opponents. Twenty-five years is no small thing. What about the density of the sand in the deserts near Tehran: is it firm enough for the landing of U. Its outcome can be highly unpredictable; history is known to push back.
Although the last few chapters do discuss German, Australian, Russian, and Israeli intelligence. At some point the degree of danger posed by foreign adversaries or domestic subversives becomes self-evident, as in the case of the Qaeda terrorist organization in the wake of its surprise attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. Nolte 26 The Dilemma of Defense Intelligence Richard A. Intelligence Accountability While this handbook concentrates chiefly on the four meanings of national security intelligence discussed above, the question of supervising secret agencies is of interest to national security scholars, too. Bias and guesswork enter into the picture, along with the limitations caused by the inherent opaqueness of the future. New York: Oxford University Press. Bombs, Bugs, Drugs, and Thugs: Intelligence and America's Quest for Security.
For this recruitment effort, case officers need to be gregarious individuals: charming, persuasive, and daring. Additional methods of physical security include the night lighting of sensitive areas, concrete Jersey barriers, and fences with concertina wire, along with the use of alarms, badges, passes, checkpoints, and restricted zones. The vast majority of monies spent on collection goes into techint. This book is an excellent, comprehensive collection of 49 articles by well-known authorities on the subject of national security. Austin: University of Texas Press.
In our information-dominated age, the organizations that function in the dark are increasingly driving policy decisions, and an understanding of these hidden aspects of government is more crucial than ever. Series Title: Responsibility: edited by Loch K. It then shifts its focus to how intelligence agencies operate, how The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence is a state-of-the-art work on intelligence and national security. Part of the dilemma stems from the fact that we live in a world filled not just with secrets but with mysteries. Information from him helped the United States identify the presence of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962. Often there are long-range unanticipated consequences of covert action.
Testimony, Hearings, Government Operations Subcommittee on National Security Staff and Operations, U. Using the United States as an illustration, let's start with intelligence as a set of organizations; then we can peer inside these structures to examine the dynamic nature of their secret operations. In this Handbook, a wide range of nationalities, career experiences, and scholarly training are reflected, underscoring the spread of interest in this subject across many boundaries. In the wake of these unfortunate—indeed tragic—events, voluminous reports written by government panels of inquiry poured forth, followed by scholarly and often not-so-scholarly books and articles that commented on the scandals and failures, offered reform proposals, and marshaled data and theory to achieve a better understanding of the dark side of government. The outcome of this mix is a volume loaded in research disciplines, findings, and agendas, with a multitude of international perspectives on the subject of national security intelligence. Educing information: interrogation, science and art, Studies in Intelligence 51 December : 43—46. On occasion, though, sigint satellites do capture revealing telephone communications, say, between international drug lords.
Military commanders on a battlefront will want to know the weapons capabilities of adversaries and the location of their war-fighters. Additional pockets of intelligence research have cropped up in Brazil, Argentina, Poland, and South Korea Born, Johnson, and Leigh. What about Cuba, benign enough to some in recent years, but for others still a pesky and unpredictable neighbor? The envisioned readership includes both specialists and well-educated nonspecialists who would like to have a synthesis of the current scholarship on espionage and related activities. The ultimate irony of intelligence is that, even when secret reports achieve a high level of perfection, policymakers may reject or twist them because they fail to fit into their hopes and preconceptions. The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence, 1945—1964.
This was sometimes a dangerous endeavor, as underscored by the more than forty U. The Power to Speak and the Power to Listen: Reflections in Bureaucratic Politics and a Recommendation on Information Flows. The outcome determines the priorities for the multibillion-dollar spending that occurs each year on intelligence collection-and-analysis. In a democracy, however, the people must have at least a basic understanding of all their government agencies, even the shadowy world of intelligence. It also considers the balance between secrecy and public accountability, and the ethical dilemmas that covert and counterintelligence operations routinely present to intelligence agencies. Although out of favor with some administrations, others have spent enormous sums of money on covert action.
The Double Cross System in the War of 1939 to 1945. As many a grand strategist has lamented for example, Murray and Gimsley , uncertainty and ambiguity dominate the environment in which decisions are made in Washington, D. Is there information in the public domain about airplane runways in Rwanda and whether they can support the weight of a U. For proponents of this hidden and aggressive approach to American foreign policy, the 1980s were a Golden Age—the historical high point of spending on, and high-level attention to, secret intervention abroad Johnson. New York: The New Press. Or electronic emissions from a weapons system that might disclose its specifications, perhaps revealing the presence of nuclear materials inside the metal casing of a bomb.