He pioneered the University's teaching of ethics in science, continues to run graduate workshops on this and is developing a Framework for Assessing Ethical Issues in New Technologies. Although over two dozen impressive products have been developed through genetic engineering achieving quantitative and qualitative improvement of diverse micronutrients, antitech activist pressure and governmental indifference have blocked commercialisation of these products. This is a clear case of science and technology subdued by politics and activism, which totally relied up on an extreme, but wholly illogical, interpretation of the Precautionary Principle Kameswara Rao 2015. Status of crop biotechnology and biosafety in Africa Professor Diran Makinde-- 8. The authors conclude that Bt cowpea enables an increased cowpea production in Africa at a lower cost and hence can contribute to a better life for millions of poor Africans. Renowned experts examine the successful implementation of the recent advances in plant genetic sciences in emerging economies. Product Description World population is forecast to grow from 7 to 9 billion by 2050, 1 in 6 is already hungry and food production must increase by 70-100% if it is to feed this growing population.
These approaches, the author argues, exemplify a model of global, 'public goods' science that is emerging within complex, international research networks. The introduction of Bt cotton in this country has saved the Chinese cotton industry, in addition to its positive ecological impacts. Wayne PowellTim Radford; Chavali Kameswara Rao; Pamela Ronald; Piet Schenkelaars; Idah Sithole-Niang; Sally Stares; Eduardo J. In the mid-1960s the public good was a dwarf wheat variety from Mexico resistant to fungal disease. Rice is the primary source of food for billions of people in developing countries, yet the commonly consumed polished grain contains insufficient levels of the key micronutrients iron Fe , zinc Zn and Vitamin A to meet daily dietary requirements. His research interests are the ethics of science and technology. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Grantors.
All methods of plant breeding are acceptable and safe, and some methods can deliver micronutrients not achievable by other methods. Chapter 10 is written by Prof Chavali Kameswara retired from Bangalore University and brings an Indian perspective to the food security, poverty and malnutrition. It is an urgent need to bring in a rigorous but proactive biosecurity regulatory regime and promote commercialisation of the hitherto developed products and to encourage new products for the benefit of the poor in the developing countries. One way of providing micronutrients in staple crops of the poor is biofortification, through plant breeding. It has now come to be realised that a food security measures have hitherto addressed only the calorie intake and that micronutrient security is an integral part of food security, and b prevention of disease with nutrition is better than struggling to cure them with medicine.
Nutritional enhancement by biofortification of staple crops Dr Adrian Dubock-- 13. No single solution will solve this problem but recent developments in the genetic technologies of plant breeding can help to increase agricultural efficiencies and save people from hunger in a sustainable manner, particularly in African nations where the need is greatest. However, despite the ever-growing demands of the public, policy-makers and the media, many scientists still find it difficult to successfully explain and publicise their activities or to understand and respond to people's hopes and concerns about their work. The author proposes a series of key changes to institutions and practices that might allow more context-responsive alternatives to emerge. Prof Bao-Rong reviews the utilisation of germplasm and breeding technology for the fruitful impact on rice production during the last decades.
While the potential cost-effectiveness of crops biofortified with single micronutrients was shown in previous research, poor people often suffer from multiple micronutrient deficiencies, which should be accounted for in biofortification initiatives. The Indian varieties of rice with the Golden Rice Event, being developed in three public sector institutions the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, The directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad and the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi , need to undergo field trials for biosecurity clearance. Field trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa delivered promising results. Social, Legal, Ethical and Political Issues: Introduction Dr David Bennett-- 20. China - earlier experiences and for the future Professor Lu Bao-rong; 10. Innovative approaches to the delivery of bioavailable iron have been shown to be efficacious. Global population growth, food security and food and farming for the future Professor Jim Dunwell-- 3.
HarvestPlus seeks to develop and distribute varieties of food staples rice, wheat, maize, cassava, pearl millet, beans, and sweet potato that are high in iron, zinc, and provitamin A through an interdisciplinary, global alliance of scientific institutions and implementing agencies in developing and developed countries. The economic and environmental impact of first generation biotech crops Graham Brookes; 5. In the early decades of the 20th century cytology succeeded in certain cases to relate specific morphological alterations in the chr omosomes with the variation of particular phenotypical traits. The worlds growing population and limited land resources require high intensity of food production. Rich people and rich countries have achieved some amount of nutritional security through diverse interventions such as industrial fortification and supplementation of micronutrients. From then until now, farmers have been selecting the best crop plants from which to breed and produce better plants. Rice with enhanced provitamin A, zinc, iron and folate concentrations is used as a concrete example.
Biotechnology research for innovation and sustainability in agriculture in the European Union Alfredo Aguilar, Danuta Cichocka, Jens Hogel, Piero Venturi and Ioannis Economidis-- 18. Advancing the cause in emerging economies Professor Klaus Ammann; Index. To buy this book at the lowest price,. When optimal traits are added through genetically engineering and production systems are optimized, algae will be competitive with feed grains and can contribute to achieve food security for our growing population. Each part is prefaced by an introduction and followed by six, eight, five and six chapters, respectively. Professor George Gaskell and Dr Sally Stares-- 21.
Dubock gives an overview of the commercial international agricultural product development of Golden Rice, in which he was involved as negotiator for Zeneca. No single solution will solve this problem but recent developments in the genetic technologies of plant breeding can help to increase agricultural efficiencies and save people from hunger in a sustainable manner, particularly in African nations where the need is greatest. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. In broad terms, three things must happen for biofortification to be successful. Within a few years, three distinct trans - fer mechanisms could be detected: transformation 1 Agricultural innovation happens at different scales and through different streams. The World Bank is recommending the use of biofortified cereals, including Golden Rice as an example, as the norm rather than the exception in addressing malnutrition, noting that education, social marketing and mass media are important to optimise the effectiveness of any food-based approaches to malnutrition alleviation.
The very easy international transfer of seed between countries facilitated the rapid progress of breeding programmes and benefit-sharing between the collaborating countries Hesser, 2006. This book provides a collected, reliable, succinct review which deals expressly with the successful implementation of the new plant genetic sciences in emerging economies in the context of the interrelated key regulatory, social, ethical, political and trade matters. Biotechnology research for innovation and sustainability in agriculture in the European Union Alfredo Aguilar, Danuta Cichocka, Jens Hoegel, Piero Venturi and Ioannis Economidis; 18. This population was selected because they represent a sex and age segment of the population at high risk for iron deficiency. The earliest studies of food iron absorption employing biosynthetically incorporated radioisotopes were published in the 1950s. These advances can rapidly incorporate new traits and tailor existing crops to meet new requirements and also greatly reduce the time and costs taken to improve local crop varieties.
Dealing with challenges and societal expectations - the industry's response Nathalie Moll and Carel du Marchie Sarvaas; 22. He states that each hectare of arable land in 2050 will need to feed five people compared to just two in 1960. Responsibility: edited by David J. The research is conducted for China, the largest rice producer in the world, where micronutrient malnutrition remains a major public health problem. Vitamin A supplementation is associated with large reductions in mortality, morbidity, and vision problems in a range of settings, and these results cannot be explained by bias. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a reduced incidence of diarrhoea 0.