Ivory tower debates, whether of trait diffusion and population movement or of systemic processes, merge all too easily into arguments about the relative contributions made to European civilization by, say, the Paphlagonians as opposed to the Crim-Tartarians. The dichotomy between the white-coated Enlightenment empiricist, whose bloodless generalizations are vacant of human meaning, and the creative Romantic ethnographer, whose imagination and powers of observation permit access to the core of experience, is itself an ideological contrivance. The search for Indo-European origins began in the nineteenth century within the same intellectual circles that spawned today's her- meneutic and ideologically based doubts about rationality and objective understanding. The lack of clear evaluative standards is particularly acute in the interpretation of those non-literate, prehistoric societies whose material remains constitute the focus of the majority of archaeological research, but whose ideological and symbolic systems remain difficult to reconstruct with any confidence. Given the currently looser, although still extant, ties between govern- ment and archaeology in Portugal, it would be expected that current models of the Copper Age would be less reflective of a national ideology than during Salazar's rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Folio 1 2, on the other hand, is almost exclusively in late classical style, and the human head is slightly turned to the left, with the eyes looking further left still.
The E-mail message field is required. This must involve comparisons, so ethnic archaeology contains very evident potential for re-playing, or inventing, competition or rivalry, or hostility between ethnic groups of the past. Through the first act the Junta Superior de Ex- cavaciones y Antigiiedades High Commission for Excavations and Antiquities was created. Academia Portuguesa da Historia 1937-8:91 The Academia also saw its mission to publish works in Portuguese and other languages on the civilizing expansion of Portugal in the world Academia Portuguesa da Historia 1937-8:197. I situate my work within and among those who have attended to the close links between archaeology and nationalism. Rune research became a legitimate academic discipline with the help of party support during this time.
Between 1933 and 1935, eight new chairs were endowed in German prehistory, and funding became available for prehistoric excavations across Germany and eastern Europe on an unprecedented scale Arnold 1990; Hassmann n. There was, of course, a price to be paid for this generous financial and institutional support. Salazar 1963:139 Salazar saw the Portuguese nation as the traditional defender of Christianity. I bear full responsibility for any such inaccuracies that remain in this paper. Between 1910 the first year of the Republic and 1926, the cost of living had increased twenty-five-fold. First, it has been emphasized that the development of archaeology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century can only be understood in the context of the creation of a national history; that is to say a history directed at legitimizing the existence of a nation and, therefore, its right to constitute an independent state.
Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology review Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology review Kuklick, Bruce journal of world history, spring 1998 Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. These entries, which provide personal views by contemporary European archae- ologists, including V. Since ancient historical sources are always grossly incomplete and, more importantly, since many contemporary or aspirant nation-states altogether lack early historical records, it is obvious that archaeology will continue to play a critical and inevitable role in the forging of national consciousnesses. They were not founded as enclaves of ethnic purity but to foster the Christian life, and it was here that Insular manuscripts were produced. Childe's independent contribution was the emphasis on material assemblages rather than individual artefact types and a focus on the social rather than ethnic or racial interpretation of archaeological cultures Harke 1991:189; Veit 1984.
He believed that religion was virtually priceless to the scientist or the peasant, the man of action or the thinker, in every latitude or era. The swastika is not, of course, a rune, although it is still often mistakenly interpreted as one. This goal sometimes became the primary aim of excavations. The cases presented here demonstrate, not surprisingly, that the close connection between archaeology, nationalism, and the construction of national identities has continued unabated in the twentieth century. In December 1945 the denazification selection process was turned over to the German authorities in the various occupation zones, mainly due to the logistical difficulties of processing the thousands of cases with the limited Allied military personnel available. Furthermore, Galician Archaeology and nationalism in Spain 53 nationalism was poorly organized.
They persisted through the later Middle Ages, for although Christianity spread right across Europe, religious backsliding or heresy could summon accusations of barbarism. If it is to be argued that the Book of Durrow was made in Northumbria, then, this narrows the plausible chronological range somewhat see Nordenfalk 1987:3. From internationalism to nationalism: forgotten pages of soviet archaeology in the 1930s and 1940s Victor A. Archaeo- logists should steer a course between the rigidity of an extreme positivism, which over-emphasizes the regularity of human behavior, and a radical relativism, which denies our ability to break through our individual and communal prejudices. Wailes and Zoll espouse the more encompassing term ethnic archaeology in their review of the ethnically biased interpretations of early medieval Insular art. It is significant that by the end of the sixteenth century the first History of Spain, written in 1598 by Father Mariana, had appeared.
Prat de la Riba saw Roman conquest as a deep misfortune since, at this time, the Iberian nationality had disappeared. Every archeologist should take the lessons of this important book to heart. Italica was one of the sites that were excavated at this time Rodriguez Morales et al. Its later and altered first colophon invokes St Columba, the sixth-century Irish founder of the famous monastery on lona, in Dalriada. What effect does Catalan nationalism have on archaeology at present in a country in which nationalism has a strong presence? In all these cases archaeology contributed to the creation of the national myth. This is when it is possible, for the first time, to see indigenous temperate European contributions to an urban, literate society in which states were developing. Kohl and Clare Fawcett archaeology.
The methodology employed in this study is avowedly particularistic. Moreover, even when efforts were made in this direction, they had little impact. The colophon not only appears to be very specific and reliable, but seems to be confirmed by the independent source, Symeon of Durham. This article argues that in Spain, as in most of Europe, archaeology developed as the result of the need to find data which would permit the reconstruction of the remotest periods of the national past. Did they volunteer for leading roles within the system, were they reluctant participants, or were they simply exploited by the party machine? First, in comparison with other European countries, Spain's popular archaeological literature was underdeveloped Olmos 1 992a and 1 992b:52. Archaeology and ideology in Southeast Europe Timothy Kaiser; 7.
In fact, the growing discipline of linguistics nourished all of these seedlings at once in the chaotic soil of German Romanticism. Archaeology in Nazi Germany: the legacy of Faustian bargain Bettina Arnold and Henning Hassman; 5. I Different archaeologies and the barbarian vs. Nevertheless, nationalistic sentiments still inform the archaeological record in Portugal. The evidence is virtually indisputable that one man was responsible for these two very different pages. In the mid-1960s students at some universities agitated for a curriculum which would include seminars and lectures on the role of prehistoric archaeology under the Nazis. In part as a result of the scarcity of trained professionals after 1945, many prehistoric archaeologists who had been active party members and operatives during the Third Reich were 74 Bettina Arnold and Henning Hassmann reinstated in their old or related departments after denazification had removed them from their posts for a brief interlude.