On the administrative side, progressive integration has, indeed, been associated with growing 'multi-level fusion', through which the ministerial administration becomes part of a closely interconnected multi-level system. These perspectives can be characterized with reference to main drivers of administrative change: developmental objectives; the conceptualization of current institutional arrangements; and the decisive actor constellations that are thought to shape administrative trajectories. The rebuilding of public administration in the new German Länder can be described as a process of increasing differentiation. What matters here, in particular, are arguments relating i to the impact of the passage of time; ii time budgets and time horizons; and iii time rules, notably those relating to timing, sequence, speed and duration. Data from both websites has previously been used for academic research see for example Firth and Spirling 2006;Heppell 2013;Benedetto and Hix 2007; Willumsen and Goetz 2017. Three questions are singled out.
The realist prescription that Europe should fear the Germans is misguided. While references to temporal categories, such as timing, sequence, speed, duration, time budgets, time limits or time horizons, are ubiquitous in political science, there are few systematic treatments of time in administration and policy-making. Spanish bureaucracy is known for a high degree of departmental autonomy combined with a strong executive that can intervene effectively when it chooses Goetz 2003. The centrality of these institutions in Federal policy-making makes them into outstanding training grounds for future top officials. Focusing on Germany, it can be shown that European integration has had a major impact on Federd-Länder and inter-Länder relations. La riforma amministrativa in Europa, Bologna: il Mulino, 1994, pp.
Political time-setting, monitoring and enforcement have assumed greater prominence, reducing the temporal discretion of the administration; central keepers of the clock' have acquired greater power; and traditional bureaucratic advantages in time budgets and time horizons have diminished. Leaders with larger, more predictable time budgets and more extended time horizons are in a privileged position as are those who enjoy discretion regarding the timing of their actions and who are able to act as time-setters. Considered from the perspective of comparative European government, the oft-claimed shift from government to governance appears overstated. At the heart of the argument is the straightforward but versatile notion of the representative claim. Whereas in the past, regular budgets were supple- mented by voluntary contributions, more recently, voluntary, earmarked contributions increased dramatically especially in the field of humanitarian related operational activities for the broader trend and theoretical discussions, see in this issue: Bergmann and Fuchs 2017;Ege and Bauer 2017; Goetz and Patz 2017;Graham 2017;Michaelowa 2017;Reinsberg 2017.
Cullen , in: German Politics, 3 3 , 1994, pp. The analysis highlights insights from institutional theory — notably how degrees, time, preferences and resources matter — to encourage further research in the field. The territorial dimension has been addressed, in particular, with reference to, first, degrees of spatial - and here most notably - cross- country variation in domestic administrative arrangements convergence versus non- convergence ; and, second, administrative co-operation across space. Analyses of the European administrative space have until now focused on its territorial and functional dimensions. The discussion first notes how time is linked to power, legitimacy and efficiency, and how time rules, time budgets and time horizons influence the potential for both institutional and individual leadership. While such an approach helps to clarify the links between pressures for change and patterns Of national adaptation, European integration as a source of change cannot be considered in isolation from other potential sources of domestic institutional and political change. Staggering exists when the terms of elected or appointed members of an institution do not coincide.
This volume is essential reading for students of comparative European politics and German studies. The federal ministerial executive is a dual institution, which combines the attributes of a government and an administration. Zur Entwicklung der post-kommunistischen öffentlichen Verwaltung, in: H. In particular, the papers discuss: internal and external challenges to the Basic Law which may undermine its centrality and directive capacity; the impact of European integration on the German Constitution; the constitutional reform debate concerning inter-governmental relations; the institutional framework for constitutional debate; the constitutionalisation process in the new Lander; the reaction of the Federal Constitutional Court to unification; and the implications of 'the politics of cultural identity' for constitutional law. Civil Service Systems in Western Europe, Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 2010, completely revised 2nd ed. Developments in European Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006, pp. One adjective that is conspicuously missing is internationalist.
Instead, some women have adapted to such pressures by becoming like men, for example, whereas others have created unique spaces for themselves in which dominant structures can be contested. The paper thus establishes that size and diversity of electorates have significant effects on legislative behaviour. Citizenship, an integral part of the vocabulary of statehood, nationality and peoplehood, seems to run into conflict with the very Telos of European integration: a project which aims at a union among the distinct peoples of Europe and not the creation of a new European people. While German history calls for vigilance, there is good reason to believe that the Federal Republic's commitment to liberal democratic values will be lasting. The Basic Law has neither been fundamentally amended nor radically reinterpreted as a result of unification. Terms, time budgets and time horizons of collective and individual political actors; rights over timing, sequencing and speed in decision-making; and the temporal properties of policy matter to the distribution of power; efficiency and effectiveness of policy-making; and democratic legitimacy.
It concludes with thoughts on the comparison of democratic timescapes. Hesse Public Sector Reform in Central and Eastern Europe I: The Case of Poland, in: Jahrbuch zur Staats- und Verwaltungswissenschaft, 1993, Vol. But subsidiarity has also figured in discussions of the proper scope for local autonomy for social policies in Germany, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, and in Green party calls for decentralization quite generally. Europeanization: New Research Agendas, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2007, pp. Christian democracy has been one of the most successful political movements in post-war Western Europe yet its crucial impact on the development of the modern European welfare state has been critically neglected.
Willumsen , in: Parliamentary Affairs, 70 2 , 2017, pp. But this outcome cannot be taken for granted. These essays examine the Europeanization of the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany across the polity, politics and public policy dimensions. Germany, Europe and the Politics of Constraint, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. It highlights profound changes in the European political landscape over the last three decades, including the fall of Communism; progressive European integration; territorial restructuring; public sector reforms at European, national, regional and local levels; changes in democratic participation, protest, elections, political communication, political parties and party competition; and challenges to the welfare state. Howlett , special issue of International Review of Administrative Sciences, 80 3 2014. This article compares the institutionalization of central ministerial executives in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland since the late 1980s.